It’s getting close to Halloween and it’s time to think about scary, creepy and ghoulish things . The “Assassin Bug” fits the bill . It’s name stirs up scary thoughts and its persona is ghoulish. Here’s why it’s the perfect Halloween bad bug:
This insect stabs its prey and sucks it dry, then attaches the corpse to its back. Not just one or two at a time, these bugs can carry around huge piles of their enemies (or fast food containers). Although, weighty and really very ghoulish, this behavior acts as a visual and olfactory camouflage as well as providing highly effective body armor.
There are about 7,000 species of assassin bugs in the world and while they can deliver a painful bite, assassin bugs are usually no threat to mankind. Then there’s the exception: the blood-suckingkissing bugs, aptly named because they bite humans painlessly on the face and around the mouth while they sleep. (They are attracted to the carbon dioxide exhaled while breathing.) Problems occur when they defecate in the process, leaving protozoans from their feces in the wound, leading to chronic heart, digestive and neurological problems. Chagas disease, is a serious problem in South America, and infections may be on the upswing in the United States.
For more information on Chagas disease and other important pest topics watch the Corky’s Pest Control’s “Pest News Minute”.
Just a couple of examples of these creepy creatures.
Spiney Assassin Bug
War Bug from Starship Troopers
Scarey but not as scary as the real ASSASSINS.
Kissing Bug picture: By Dr. Erwin Huebner, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Members of the Muridae family are the dominant species in every region of the world, due to their ability to adapt to and exploit new situations. Commensal rats and mice, those that live at the expense of humans, invade their dwellings, eat their food, upset their comfort, and frequently transmit diseases to them, belong to this family. Three species of commensal rodents are the most widely distributed: the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus; the Roof rat,Rattus rattus; and the Common (House) mouse, Mus musculus.
When natural disasters strike, rats and mice experience the same suffering as humans. Many of them are crushed to death or drowned, die of starvation, or fall prey to infections. Their populations are frequently decimated. Survivors, fearful and disorganized, wander into new areas in search of protection, shelter, and food. It takes time for them to regroup and reorganize their social behavior, become familiar with their new environment, find safe havens, locate food and water, and memorize their movements. All this occurs before they can again begin reproducing.
Colony building and reproduction will only begin when their new ecosystem has stabilized. This typically takes 6 to 10 months under favorable conditions. As the rodent population grows and resettles, people have a greater chance of being exposed to the diseases carried by rodents. Rodent urine and dander also contain allergens that can cause allergic reactions or trigger asthma symptoms in sensitive persons and more than 9,000 persons are treated in emergency departments annually for rat or mouse bites.
FACT: Some rats, if provoked and cornered, will fight their way out of a confrontation, as will many wild animals. But most rats and mice do not directly attack humans. Young babies, bed-confined elders, and the homeless sleeping in doorways and alleys, however, are occasionally bitten by unprovoked rats. In some cases, those cleaning up debris after natural disasters will come in contact with frightened rats (mice) and may experience bites.
So even with immediately decreasing populations, rats are perceived to be increasing because they gravitate to the same areas as humans and become more prevalent and evident in those environs.
Why are rodent populations, and their movements, so important after disasters? Because events like Hurricane Irma and Jose, the fires in our great northwest, tornados in the midwest and the earthquakes in the U.S. and Mexico, can change the ecology of affected areas, making it more favorable to rats and other vermin. At the same time, they can curtail community services that can keep these pests in check.
Ants are one of the few groups of animals which change their environment to meet their needs. In their case, necessity is truely the mother of invention.
A single ant is capable of carrying up to 50 times its own weight, so working together as a colony means they’re able to accomplish impressive and seemingly impossible feats. In fact, a large army of garden ants can construct an underground city big enough to house thousands of insects, within one week.
Ant nests come in all shapes and sizes. Many species build their colonies underground, but not all. Some build above-ground mounds, while others build colonies in trees. Some ants will even build a colony within the walls of a building. The exact structure and whereabouts of the nest varies with the species, soil type and situation.
Ants are industrious creatures and excellent builders. Here are a few of their amazing constructs.
Anthills: These nests are created as a by-product of worker ants digging underground tunnels. In fact, ants in general move more earth (soil) than any other organism, including earthworms. As the worker ants excavate the colony’s tunnels, they dispose of the displaced earth by carrying it back out of the colony and depositing it near the entrance. They also get rid of any garbage found in the colony in this way. They carry these tiny bits of dirt and garbage in their mandibles. Usually, this combination of materials is dropped off at the top of the anthill, so it does not slide back down the hole into the colony. Some species of ants work hard to create a specific shape to their anthills.
Tree Nests:Some ants, such as theCarpenter Ant, build their nests by hollowing out rotting wood; they do not eat the wood. Workers take mouthful-sized chips of wood to the nest entrance, where they deposit the chips. This results in a pile of sawdust at the base of a tree. The nest itself consists of meandering tunnels that are free of sawdust. Nests may be present in rotting wood in trunks, limbs, or roots and even wooden fence posts.
There are a few ant species whose nests are constructed using leaves. The green tree ant(Oecophylla smaragdina) sews together leaves with the silk produced by their larvae. The colony expands by enlarging existing leaf nests or by adding new satellite nests. Other species use plant fibers to construct coverings which are attached to the surfaces of leaves. These ants live within the chamber formed by the covering and leaves.
Rafts: During floods and heavy rainstorms, passageways and chambers within underground ant nests fill with water and force the evacuation of the colony. Fire ants have the unique ability to come together as a colony and build an “ant raft” using their own bodies. When waters start to flood the colony, worker ants link legs and mouths together, weaving a raft in a process that can take less than two minutes. The fine hairs on the ants trap enough air that those on the bottom layer of the raft avoid being completely submerged. Fire ants can survive in a raft up to several weeks, although they eventually to need reach dry land if they are to restart their colony.
Towers:Fire ants build complex towers as a means of avoiding
trouble. Without any planning, using trial-and-error and only their own bodies, they create a bell-shaped tower structure that helps them survive. According to one study, an individual ant, can support as many as three other ants, which it connects to using sticky pads on its feet. Scientists think that their towers act like makeshift shelters until the ants can build more safe and durable accommodations.
Rules for building ant towers:
Don’t move if there are other ants on top of you.
If you are on top of other ants, keep moving you’ll find your spot.
If you find an open parking spot next to other immobile ants, pull in and link up with your neighbors.
Bridges: Army ants build living bridges, moving hundreds of thousands of ants daily. They are creating shortcuts through their environment saving time and energy, and optimizing traffic flow. Other ant species form structures out of their bodies, but their constructs are not such a huge part of their lives and daily behavior as is the bridge building of the army ants. Building “living” bridges across breaks and gaps in the forest floor allow their notoriously large and vicious raiding swarms to travel efficiently.
Fun Facts about Ants:On the order of 10 quadrillion ants live on the planet at any given moment. That’s about 1.4 million ants per human, based on a world population of 7.3 billion people.
It’s Summer and the California beaches are the vacation destinations of millions of people. It’s where we have fun in the sun, cool off in the water and relax on the sand under colorful umbrellas with cool drinks and our favorite books.
Reality check: what we often find are crowds, screaming kids, sand in awkward places, sunburn, packed parking lots, traffic jams, and “Bugs”!
Be prepared to share your summer beach experience with these annoying, “Beach Bugs”.
The common sand flea (Orchestia agilis), that is found on California beaches, is really an amphipod, or a small, shrimp-like crustacean. They burrow into the sand and they feed on decaying plant and animal matter that washes up on the shore, especially seaweed. They do not want anything to do with people. They obviously are not fleas, not even insects. However, they jump, similar to the way fleas do and they live in the sand, so hence the name sand flea. On other beaches, around the world, different species of sand fleas present problems for humans, and other mamals, as they bite to gather blood in order to reproduce and carry diseases, not unlike mosquitoes.
This is a general term that can be applied to any biting fly you might encounter at the beach, besides a mosquito. This could even be a type of horsefly that is associated with that type of beachy habitat. Most commonly, the name sand fly refers to flies in the family Ceratopogonidae. These are small biting midges, sometines refered to as no-see-ums, only 1-4 millimeters in length that live in aquatic habitats all over the world. Like mosquitoes, it is only the female that sucks blood to get protein in preparation for laying her eggs. The bite itself is too small to feel. It’s not until later when your skin starts to react with the proteins in their saliva that you start to feel the itch, and oh brother, what an itch!
Salt Marsh Mosquitos:
The Aedes taeniorhynchus, commonly known as the black salt marsh mosquito, and the Aedes sollicitans are frequent biters at Southern California Beaches. They lay their eggs in brackish and saltwater pools left over from rising then receding tides. There is no mystery about these agressive ladies. They’re big, they’re hungry and they will come after you any time of the day whether you’re swatting at them or not. They are larger than many freshwater mosquitoes, so their bites are bigger too. In other parts of the world, they are vectors of Venezuelan and Eastern Equine Encephalitis. Luckily, in our area, this is not a problem, but they are a prime vector of dog heartworm, so if you live near the beach, keep your dogs on a heartworm preventative.
Sea Lice or Baby Jelly Fish (not bugs but they will bug you!)
What we call sea lice are actually larvae of jellyfish that float around in clouds in the ocean. Although they are tiny, they still possess those nasty stinging cells or nematocysts. If you’re swimming in the ocean, they can become trapped between your bathing suit and skin. This is when you can be stung. The stings cause intense itching and burning which result in a rash with small raised blisters. The rash can last anywhere from two days to two weeks, but most of the time they go away with no medical attention necessary, just lots of cortisone cream and Benadryl! Prime time for ‘Sea Lice” is May through August.
So, grab your sunblock, your bug repellent (with deet) and head out to the beach. Have fun, play safe and don’t let the “beach bugs” bite!
There are more things in heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.
Shakespeare’s Hamlet got it right. Man has a limited knowledge of his own universe and there truly are, new and exciting things discovered every day. One of the newer discoveries is theT. Rex ant(Tyrannomyrmex rex). Originally, dead ant specimens were discovered in Malaysia in 1994 and were our only evidence of their existence until recently, when Mark Wong(National Geographic Young Explorer) and Gordon Yong (both, of the University of Singapore) discovered a thriving colony in northern Singapore.
It was no small fete to find these ugly brutes, since their preference for nesting sites is moist, rotting wood buried under inches of soil. These ants create nest chambers inside the rotting wood, where they live, work and breed. As luck would have it, military training activity and the debris left behind by soldiers (various trash items) brought them to the surface and to the attention of researchers.
Being named after the fearsome dinosaur, T. Rex, because of its hellishly, unique appearance, has proven a misrepresentation of its true personality. This ant is no tyrant, it is shy, seemingly nocturnal and a picky eater. What surprised the scientists most was, when offered what
ants normally eat (honey, termites, insects and other ants) these denizens of the dark preferred to eat their own. Cannibalism is not unknown in the insect world but this finding reveals how much of a mystery these asian ants are.
According to these two intrepid entomologists, Wong and Yong, “There is this amazing world right beneath our feet, which we have hardly explored and we are excited to get started.”
Here are some interesting statistics:
To date, less than five percent of the ocean has been explored. The ocean is the lifeblood of Earth, covering more than 70 percent of the planet’s surface, driving weather, regulating temperature, and ultimately supporting all living organisms. http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/exploration.html
As an invasive species, Argentine ants have been extremely successful invaders. These aggressive, territorial ants, which can live in super-colonies comprised of thousands of queens and millions of workers, easily displaced native species as they spread across the United States. No other ant species has successfully stood up to these super troopers — until now.
So, what gives Asian needle ants (Brachyponera chinensis or Pachycondyla chinensis) an edge over the competition? Researchers have come to the conclusion that the Asian needle ant’s ability to tolerate cooler temperatures is a major factor in their success. In cooler months, both species become dormant and their basic activities slow way down. This temporarily stops reproduction, diminishing populations. Asian needle ants wake up and become
active much earlier inthe year than Argentine ants, getting a jumpstart on their competitors. They start to reproduce, forage for food, and build new colonies in Argentine ant territory as early as March, while the Argentine ants take another couple of months to rise and shine and get going. Finding their old territories already occupied, the Argentine ants typically move on to other areas.
In forests, Asian needle ants nest in rotting logs, under leaves and mulch, and under rocks. In human environments, they can nest anywhere from potted plants to under door mats, in landscaping materials, and even under dog bowls.
While they love to eat termites, Asian needle ants will consume just about anything it can get its’ mandibles around, from dead insects to other ants to human garbage. Its’ aggressiveness, habitat versatility and eating habits could mean a great change to our eco-systems. When these guys move in they eat other ants, devour their food sources, and take up their nesting spaces, forcing native ant species, such as Wood ants, Acrobat ants andThief ants, to disappear. This is a problem because, these native species play important roles in the ecosystem. Many native ants are gardeners—they till the soil and plant seeds, and the loss of these ant species will impact the health of our forests, and in the long-run, destroy them.
Not only is this ant of concern to its’ adopted habitats but it is also a health concern as it’s venomous sting causes burning and site redness (with dull nerve pain lasting up to 2 weeks) and in some extreme cases, allergic reactions (anaphylaxis). Scientists have deduced that more people are allergic to Asian ant stings than to Honeybee stings.
Although not yet arriving in California, in great numbers, they are heading our way. They have already been stopped 6 times at our boarders and appear to be hitch-hiking on imported food products, landscaping and plant materials and grandma’s potted plant.
What does an Asian ant look like? It is shiny, black with lighter orange legs, has a stinger and is only about 0.2 inches long. The Argentine ant, in comparison, ranges in color from light to dark brown, doesn’t have a stinger (but they do bite) and are about 0.08 inches in length, much smaller than the Asian needle ant.
Here in California, the brown recluse spider has been elevated to a major urban legend alongside UFOs, Bigfoot, the Jackalope and Elvis.
There is a great “fear” of brown recluse spiders in California, mostly because of misguided and sensationalized media hype. So say spider experts from the entomology department at the University of California, Riverside.
The common name“brown recluse spider“ refers to one species of spider, Loxosceles reclusa, which lives in the central Midwest: Nebraska south to Texas and eastward to southernmost Ohio and north-central Georgia. It gets its name from its color and its shy, reclusive, nocturnal nature.
This species of violin spider is not native to California and only a handful of these spiders (less than 10) have ever been collected here. Of those that were, there was some relationship between the spider and a recent move or shipment of goods from the Midwest.
There are other Loxosceles spiders in California, the most common being Loxosceles deserta, found in sparsely- populated areas of the eastern California desert. There are no established populations of native Californian violin spiders in urban non-desert locations. In southern California, a South American violin spider, Loxosceles laeta, also known as a Chilean recluse, which is supposedly more venomous than the brown recluse, inhabits a small area of Sierra Madre, Alhambra, San Gabriel and Monterey Park. According to researchers, there has not been one verified bite incident involving L. laeta in California because they mostly live in basements and steam tunnels and they rarely, hang out in plain sight, in people’s homes.
Not Recluse: Red, elevated and persistent or chronic wounds.
Recluse bites are whitish blue or purple (not red), flat (not elevated) and don’t last more than three months.
So, if a patient has a wound that is elevated or red or persists more than 3 months, something other than a brown recluse bite should be considered.
A red lesion would indicate a bite or sting by another insect/spider or might be a bacterial infection caused by :
streptococcus or anthrax or the result of both.
According to Dr. Vetter, brown recluse spiders are no longer than a half-inch in body length and have a dark brown violin shape on their body. They are venomous, but about 90 percent of bites self-heal, ab
out 10 percent result in a rotting flesh lesion, and less than 1 percent cause a systemic reaction that can be fatal.
There is no denying that necrotic wounds are occurring in California but as long as people keep the myth of the brown recluse, alive, the real causes of these wounds will continue to be misdiagnosed and effective treatment delayed.
The South American palm weevil has ignored the boarder wall and is headed straight into California on its never-ending quest for plentiful food and abundant breeding grounds. Here in San Diego County, with our iconic landscape palm trees, like the Canary Island date palm and others, we have everything these invasive weevils need to sustain their ever-growing populations.
Historically these tree killers are well known from Argentina and Paraguay north through South America and Central America to central Mexico and into the Caribbean.
Since 2010 they have been attacking and killing palms, primarily Canary Island Date Palms, in Baja California adjacent to San Diego. Then in 2015, they were found to be the cause of death of 10 Canary Island Date Palms in a neighborhood of San Ysidro,
which is in the southern part of San Diego. More recently, this year, they have been detected in these same palms, in Rancho Santa Fe, in North San Diego Country, where treatment is commencing to safe-guard these beautiful, expensive landscape trees.
If left unchecked, these invaders will be a real threat to the region’s ornamental and palm industry. The ornamental palm industry in California, has an estimated value of $70 million while commercial date producers in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys contribute about $30 million to the state’s economy. These guys could put a big dent in California’s already challenged economy.
Despite the weevil’s large size, it is often difficult to detect infestations because they live inside the palms. However, infested palms will often exhibit yellowing and suffer notched or chewed looking new fronds or internal damage to the top of the crown. In advanced stages of infestation, the tops of palms can droop and collapse.
The devastation comes not from the adult weevils themselves, but their larvae, which eat the palms from the inside out, typically in the crown of the tree. That makes it impossible for the tree to grow new fronds and causes it to die from the top down.
The South American palm weevil can also transmit another palm-killer — the red ring nematode— which has not been found in California to date, and Fusarium Wilt– an infectious fungal disease, that kills the palm and infects the soil surrounding the palm for years.
According to experts, a detection and monitoring program must accompany any treatment program. Monitoring for any change in tree appearance is crucial. Insecticide treatments alone do not necessarily guarantee eradication. In addition to any proposed treatment, keeping a palm as healthy and vigorous as possible may reduce the likelihood of an infestation, since weak, sick or damaged trees attract these harmful pests.
Agriculture officials are hoping to locate and stop the invasive South American palm weevil before it gets a foothold in California. Therefore, they are encouraging anyone who sees a large long nosed black beetle, to report it.
Researchers at the University of California Riverside are encouraging anyone who spots palm weevils or palm trees damaged by the pest to fill out an online form on the websiteof the Center for Invasive Species Research. The CISR website also provides wonderful photographs to help with identification.
Producing extreme wet weather conditions, Mother Nature is gearing up for another blood thirsty assault on mankind and this time we won’t see them coming.
The same conditions that encourage mosquitoes, give rise to the infamous “No-See-Ums”, also called, Sand flies (which they really aren’t) or Biting midges, in Western North America, “Punkies” in the Northeast, “Five-o’s” (because they do their biting around 5PM) in Florida and Alabama, “Pinyon gnats” in the Southwest, and “moose flies in Canada.
But no matter what they’re called, their bites are extremely annoying and reactions to these bites range from small red welts at the bite site to localized allergic reactions with burning and extreme itching, sometimes lasting hours.
Ceratopogonidae, or biting midges, are a family of small flies (1–4 mm long) in the order Diptera. Coastal and mountain areas provide their primary habitat and they love wetlands and salt marshes. They will also breed in, backyards, tree-holes, mud and damp leafy areas; anywhere there is moisture.
No-see-ums are the smallest blood-sucking insects on earth, and like the mosquito, only the females bite as they require the proteins from blood to produce their eggs. They have serrated mandibles (mouthparts) that take a chunk out of your skin, leaving a hole that fills with blood. Then they suck it up. They feed both on humans and other mammals. Several species will suck the blood of insects, including mosquitoes. Some species spread the livestock diseases Blue tongue andAfrican horse sickness and a condition calledSweet itch. In some countries, particularly in tropical regions, these insects can transmit parasites and diseases such as filarial worms in humans, but none are known totransmit diseasesto humans in the U.S.
Almost invisible, no-see-ums appear at dawn and dusk, just like mosquitoes, and have a 4- to 6-week life cycle. Late Spring and summer are their peak swarming season. Unfortunately, they continually breed, even during the winter months. In winter, they just slow down their life cycle and wait for favorable conditions in other life stages, like eggs and larvae. Their sole purpose in life is to breed, so after mating (males) and after egg laying (females) die. Females may lay 30-100 eggs in a clutch and up to 7 clutches before she dies. Because they do not feed, adults live for only 3 to 5 days. The biting midge larvae are bright red in color and live in the water until fully mature, and able to fly.
No-See-Ums are often confused with mosquitoes. This is because midges closely resemble mosquitoes (although much smaller)and their immature stages (eggs and larvae) share many of the same water sources. Like mosquitoes, midge larvae survive quite well in polluted, stagnant water.
Midge or a mosquito?
Midges, raise their forelegs at rest, while mosquito adults do not.
The wings of midges are shorter than their body, while mosquito wings are slightly longer than their body.
Midges have nonfunctional (reduced) mouth parts, while mosquitoes have a long proboscis (needle like projection). Mosquitoes pierce the skin with mouthparts like a syringe and suck up the blood. Midges, however, cut the skin with sharp mouthparts like a pair of scissors and then suck up the pool of blood that forms by rolling its mouth into a short feeding tube.
Midges form large mating swarms in the evening, which may occur over several days. While male mosquitoes may swarm when mating, they are typically in a defined location and difficult to see.
Midges only live long enough to mate and lay their eggs, while certain species of mosquitoes can live for months at a time.
Because of their prolific breeding habits and the fact that a lot of their breeding areas are protected by state law, midges are impossible to control completely. So, if you can’t kill them all, the next best thing is….
Avoid areas that are known to have high biting insect activity.
Keep vegetation surrounding dwellings to a minimum. Mow tall grasses and cut dense foliage. Let the sunshine in. Dry out wet, muddy areas and pick up leaf litter. Get rid of breeding areas.
Reduce moisture around the house. Get rid of standing water, don’t over water and empty any water holding containers (plant pots, toys, tires, stagnant ponds and pools etc.).
Batten down the hatches. Fix broken windows, install screens with extra small mesh, caulk openings into the interior of dwellings. Keep windows and doors shut if unscreened. Keep outdoor lights off during evening hours or install yellow outdoor lighting to deter midges. They’re attracted to light, but less so to yellow lighting.
Midges are weak fliers and do not like to seek blood meals when a moderate breeze is blowing, therefore, ceiling fans or other air circulation devices that increase air flow, inside dwellings, may also decrease biting midge activity indoors.
Wear light colored, long sleeve clothing and cover exposed areas of skin, when outdoors during midge activity periods, usually early morning and late afternoon, to minimize exposure.
Personal insect repellents (containing Deet) applied to the skin and clothing as directed usually give several hours protection.
Synthetic pyrethroid barrier sprays, applied around vegetation and exterior walls may substantially reduce midge adult numbers around treated premises for many weeks. Continuous, periodic, or seasonal treatments to the landscape is recommended.
Midges, even the biting kind, are important to the eco-system. They make up an essential part of the food chain as they provide food for fish and other aquatic animals, bats, other invertebrates, birds, lizards and even carnivorous plants like sundews and butterworts.
So, like the mosquito, we don’t want to live with No-See-Ums but our world can’t survive without them.
From the “Ents”, tree-like creatures, created by J.R.R. Tolkien for his Middle Earth fantasy world, to the “Womping Tree” of Harry Potter fame, to “Groot” of the science fiction thriller/comedy “Guardians of the Galaxy”, and you can’t forget “Audrey” from The Little Shop of Horrors, talking plants, plants that communicate between themselves and others, have fascinated fiction enthusiasts and hardcore realists alike .
Contrary to the long-held idea that plants are silent, stoic, and uncommunicative, recent research has made it clear that many species have lively and informative conversations with each another. Scientists have revealed that plants communicate through the air, by releasing odorous chemicals called volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and through the soil, by secreting chemicals for transport along thread-like networks formed by soil fungi. This is the plants version of “wireless communication” and they’re having more than gossip sessions: these signals warn of the many dangers facing plants. No longer can we call reclusive individuals, wall flowers, because now we know plants have active social lives.
Plants aren’t limited to conversations between themselves. It turns out that plants can also summon help from the animal kingdom, when under attack — when corn plants (Maize) or tobacco plants are munched on by caterpillars, they can give off an odor that attracts caterpillar-eating wasps! A chemical in the armyworm’s drool triggers the leaves of corn and tobacco seedlings to scream for protection and aide from armyworm predators. If you’re a corn or tobacco farmer, you might want to start using this trick to defend your crop against aphids.
There’s also evidence that plant-eating insects are intercepting the chemical communications of their prey. Ted Farmer, noted researcher from the Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Lausanne, Biophore, Lausanne, Switzerland,who found evidence of an electrical nervous system in plants, has also found evidence that insects actively try to minimize the chemical defenses of the plants they feed upon. (Read his paper, Differential gene expression in response to mechanical wounding and insect feeding in Arabidopsis.) Ants, microbes, moths, even hummingbirds and tortoises (Farmer scientifically verified their responses) all detect and react to these blasts of plant defensive chemicals.
This is what we know about plant communication:
Plants can call for help. When you smell the sweet odor of cut grass or cut flowers you are really smelling the plants “distress call”. The plant is calling in help from insects that will eat the insects currently feeding off of it. The grass or flower treats the lawnmower or scissors as it would a hungry insect chewing its body parts.
Plants listen in to other plants private conversations. They evesdrop! Plants can pick up chemical signals from unrelated, plants in their surrounding area. When they pick up a strangers’ chemical “SOS”, they start to produce their own defensive mechanisms pro-actively.
Plants will defend their home territory. Plants are competitive organisms. They compete for sunlight, water, and nutrients. Certain species of plants can emit chemicals into the soil that will kill foreign plant species. Then there are plants that can nullify the effects of these toxic emissions with their own chemical concoctions, effectively protecting themselves and other unrelated plants close by.
Plants can recognize their relatives and siblings. They tend to recognize and support their relatives. They become less competitive for resources when in close proximity to their own family members, sharing rather than hogging available resources, promoting the health of their species. One for all and all for one.
Plants can communicate, not only with insects, but with mammals. Plants use their communication skills to attract animals that bring them beneficial help. Whether its food they need or defense from enemies, plants are not shy when it comes to asking for “Help”. The carnivorous, Pitcher Plant, is able to communicate acoustically with bats making it easy for bats to find them and deposit guano into the plant, providing nourishment.